Julius Braunthal, “History of the International, 1914-1943", vol. 2, 1963 (Germany), 1967 (Britain)
The end of the Second International
The work of Julius Brauthal is written from a point of view of an Austrian Social-Democrat after World War II, and hence can not be revolutionary. Yet, it is much more informative than the works of official communists of the Stalin-Khrushchev period (William Forster, Palm Datt).
Braunthal notes that on August 4th, 1914, “almost all Socialist parties in the belligerent countries pledged themselves to the defense of the very bourgeois-capitalist states whose destruction has hitherto been their aim”. The explanation for this that he gives is that “powerful feelings of patriotism and nationalism had none the less been lying dormant among the mass of the working classes”, and leaders of the Social Democra
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